As you listen to this first-person narrative and review the supporting primary sources, think about how learning the story of this man who served as the cargo superintendent (or supercargo) on a slave ship might build a better understanding of the American slave trade in the 18th century It was one leg of the triangular trade route that took goods from Europe to Africa, Africans to work as slaves in the Americas and the West Indies, and items produced on the plantations back to Europe. Map reproduced by permission of Yale University Press. It had nine separate appendages of log line, each with several knots (Falconbridge, 1973: 40). “These filled me with astonishment, that was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe…I was immediately handed and tossed up to see if I was sound by some of the crew, and I was persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me…when I looked round the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling and multitude of black people, of every description, chained together, everyone of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted” (Equiano, 1999: 31). He goes on to say that, “It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold. Smallpox was yet another common disease that, like the rest, was exacerbated by the cruel and inhuman experiences, which killed many Africans and caused many more to become physically pathetic and emotionally terrified. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. the âmiddle passageâ is an old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade. Then, their teeth would loosen and eating would have become difficult and painful (Huskey, 1998). Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. The Atlantic slave trade was the largest foâ¦ “The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered it a scene of horror almost inconceivable” (Equiano, 1999: 33). Of these, nearly 18 percent died during the transatlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. The women were not put in irons, unless they were considered troublesome. Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse (1973: 24, 25). Source 10 - Cruikshank's cartoon . The right wrist and ankle of one person was connected to the left wrist and ankle of the other. I have even known them to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practiced to such a scandalous excess” (Equiano, 1999: 74). “The women, in particular, clang to each other in agonies fiercely to be conceived, shrieking through excess of terror, at the savage manner in which their brutal purchasers rushed upon and seized them” (Falconbridge, 1973: 35). 1976. Required fields are marked *, Native American Headdress – Music Festival Goers. These are two sheets of sources used in a Y8 slavery lesson. Captain Rich’d Drake, an African slave trader for fifty years, described how the blacks were examined head to foot, having their joints and muscles squeezed, their arms and legs twisted, their breast and groins pinched without mercy. The nightmare for the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather. Razi, Abu Bahr Muhammad. They were forced to strip naked and were checked by their purchasers to make sure they were in suitable condition. The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. The Oxford English Dictionary defines dysentery as, “A disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and glands of the large intestine, accompanied with gripping pains, and mucous and bloody evacuations” (JMR). The autobiography continues to tell the tale of his survival and how he eventually came to buy his freedom. Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources. ... For this American colonies lesson, 4th graders research using primary and secondary sources, Native Americans, Europeans, and African Americans role in the... Get Free Access See Review. The slave trade was a vast system involving many types of people. August 1, 2017. Dysentery, one of the common diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood. 1. The Gullah People of the Sea Islands For Teachers 8th. ( Log Out / Source 6: Diagram of a slave ship. In a scramble, each slave is priced the same and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim. The rumor was that white cannibals had a fondness for eating African flesh (Pierson, 1977: 147, 148). To combat and prevent scurvy, sailors regularly forced slaves to rinse their mouths out with vinegar (Thomas, 1997: 419). If the weather proves favorable, they are permitted to remain in that situation till four or five in the afternoon, when they are disengaged from the chain, and sent down” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). According to Falconbridge, “Most of the slaves have such an aversion to the horse beans, that unless they are narrowly watched, when fed upon deck, they will throw them overboard or in each others faces when they quarrel” (1973: 22). Although the black traders who dealt in African slaves were careful not to revel the circumstances under which slaves were collected, Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was involved in the slave trade, had reason to believe that most of the slaves were victims of a heartless action known as kidnapping (1973: 13). Mustakeem, Sowande M. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle As a result, sickness and death were prevalent on every slaver. Vitamin C and Scurvy. The Middle Passage Conditions. In this harrowing description of the Middle Passage, Olaudah Equiano described the terror of the transatlantic slave trade. Some of the excrement and urine would seep through the spaces between the plank boards, splattering on those who were unfortunate enough to be directly under the relieving slave (Munford, 1991: 308). Source 3: Poster. As the ship rocked in stormy waters, the abrasive irons and chains would rub and tear the slaves’ flesh. Download, reproduce, distribute, and enjoy a warm beverage while students dive into the Middle Passage. The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. The greedy, brutish, madhouse of the scramble was just another stress for the poor slaves. An analysis of primary sources or events. Secondary Resources. Indeed, with only two cups of water per day coupled with the sweating, puking, and diarrhea, the slaves suffered tremendously from dehydration. The Middle Passage was the middle stop of the "triangular trade": European ships would first sail to the western coast of Africa to trade a variety of goods for people who had been captured in war, kidnapped, or sentenced to enslavement as punishment for a crime; they would then transport enslaved people to the Americas and sell them in order to purchase sugar, rum, and other products; â¦ Thâ¦ The women were free from irons and could dance about more easily. According to Equiano, “The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. The sheer scale of the trade can obscure the experiences of individuals. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Crossing the Lake of Fire: Slave Resistance during the Middle Passage, 1720-1842 By Bly, Antonio T The Journal of Negro History, Vol. On large ships, several hundred slaves could be packed below decks. Scurvy was another common disease suffered by the slaves during The Middle Passage. Determined to get the best, arguments and fights would break out between the competitive purchasers (Falconbridge, 1973: 34). alternatives . Jan 23, 2019 - primary-source-middle-passage-19659-article_only Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. Gregory Ablavsky et al., âBritish North America,â Daniel Johnson, ed., in The American Yawp ... Mustakeem, Sowande M. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage. In another account by James Arnold, a surgeon aboard Captain Joseph Williams ship the Ruby, describes his captain’s victimization of young female slaves. Examining the Middle Passage. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. Equiano states that, “The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of the terrified Africans” (1999: 35, 36). Dr. Philip Howard, from the University of Houston, described these platforms as strips of un-planed boards with no covering to protect slaves from the splinters and knots, usually having some amount of space between each board. Some of them were common criminals (Falconbridge, 1973: 15). The transatlantic slave trade began around 1518 and ended sometime after the 1870’s. The modified design of the holds exacerbated and promoted unhealthy conditions for the slaves, resulting in high mortality, along with the physical weakening and psychological traumatizing of the rest. The cold-blooded state of affairs and the brutal process of The Middle Passage began on the coast of West Africa where enslaved Africans were held prisoners by their African captors. Source: David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, 2010). Upon being brought aboard the slave ship, the male slaves were shackled together in pairs with handcuffs and leg irons. Source 4: A Negro's Complaint. Source 8: A slave revolt. Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. Thomas, Hugh. Passage. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in â¦ Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. Secondary Sources. Horse beans were the cheapest food you could get in Europe at the time. In rough seas or rainy weather, it was necessary to close the airports to prevent the hold from being flooded and the victims could be locked below deck for days (Munford, 1991: 305). Captains, officers and crew could be sexual predators and the powerless female slaves were their victims (Falconbridge, 1973: 23, 24). I hope it was interesting for you. Test your knowledge out. New York: Simon & Schuster. Next, their gums would hemorrhage while the tissue became weak and spongy. Circle the correct answer. Are these primary or secondary sources? Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Falconbridge reported that, “The confined air, rendered noxious by effluvia exhaled from their bodies, and by being repeatedly breathed, soon produces fevers and fluxes, which generally carries off great numbers of them” (1973: 24). Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. There is evidence that Equiano may have been born in South Carolina and not Africa. The Slave Trade. Bosman, William. Sometimes they would encircle whole groupings with a rope. Hill, Pascoe Grenfell. One can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. Frequently, weak slave children would be found lying in a tub, smothered in sickness, unable to lift themselves out after having fallen in (Hill, 1993: 38). The speculum oris had wooden dividers that were forced into the slaves’ mouth and a mechanism was turned causing the jaws to be cranked open. In times of good weather, the slaves were brought up from the hold onto the main deck. The Middle Passage âLes tam-tam de lâAfrique,â by IAM Lyrics (English translation) âFils de Chamâ (Hamâs son)â Saturday, Aug 6, 2011. Known as the "middle passage," this sea voyage could range from one to six months, depending on the weather. The Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced âadjustmentâ to life in the Americas. Terrified Africans died and became feeble from a variety of diseases that were aggravated by the ruthless methods of their captors and the bestial conditions they suffered on board the ship. Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. It seemed at times as if their arms would by pulled out of joint or their jaws cracked by some of the Dutch boors. Slave ships usually took between six and eleven weeks to complete the voyage. They told us we were not to be eaten, but to work, and were soon to go on land, where we should see many of our country people” (1999: 35). Next come the lesions which ulcerate soon after formation” (Razi, 2000). The women may not have had to suffer in irons but they were subject to other evil-minded and unsparing treatments. He goes on to state that the sharks will follow the slave ships across the Atlantic, waiting to feed on any slaves that enter the water (Bosman, 1967: 281, 282). Upon the site of land, the weakened, traumatized slaves were no longer restricted to their limited rations of food and water, if there was no shortage (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Like this: Like Loading... Post navigation. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. It was handed to them in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat (Falconbridge, 1973: 22). Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in Lesson Planet. Many slaves displayed symptoms of pneumonia (Munford, 1991: 308, 309). The transport of African slaves formed one leg of the Triangular Trade, an economic system that drastically altered the societies of four continents. Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. Therefore, slaves were not getting the balanced nutrition they needed and they became unhealthy, weak and even more susceptible to diseases. This video gives a brief description of primary and secondary sources, how to identify them, and where to search for them.-- Created using PowToon Learning objectives; To investigate what was the middle passage?. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Interpretations of original documents. It involved the unwilling separation of peoples from their home and family, forcing them into a mandatory deportation, reducing their status to that of mere human cargo, exposing them to a cramped disease filled environment, limiting them of basic life giving substance, subjecting them to wrenching sexual abuse and much more. Anderson Library located at the University of Houston’s main campus. They hurried back to their cabin and locked themselves inside. One day in 1924, five men who were camping in the Cascade Mountains of Washington saw a group of huge apelike creatures coming out of the woods. Adding to the despair and distress of being reduced to slavery was the widespread fear that they were being sold as food. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Drake, Rich’D. “It was his general practice on the receipt of a women slave—especially a young one—to send for her to come to his cabin so that he might lie with her. The amount of bodies, the lack of ventilation, and excrement created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that were inhuman and savage. Prentice Hall, Inc. Dow, George Francis. Students will learn new vocabulary words, determine the central idea of a primary source document, and then choose one of two activities that will help them to analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. An Account of the Slave Trade off the Coast of Africa. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. Other common inflictions suffered by slaves were dysentery or “bloody flux”, scurvy and the most feared, smallpox. The slaves that were carried ashore and sold in a dying state seldom survived for very long (Falconbridge, 1973: 33). Their irons being examined, a long chain, which is locked to a ring-bolt, fixed in the deck, is run through the rings of the shackles of the men, and then locked to another ring-bolt, fixed also in the deck. Thus, the formerly free Africans who survived the cruel and inhuman process known as The Middle Passage began a lifetime of servitude in the Americas. 1997. The Middle Passage: Voyage into Bondage. 1993. Slaves that were not stored next to these buckets had trouble reaching them. “Flux is similarly defined as an abnormally copious flowing of blood and excrement from the bowels or other organs; a morbid or excessive discharge” (JMR). The voyage from Africa to the New World of the Americas was called the Middle Passage. Primary Source: a record made by people who saw or took part in an event (originates from the past) Secondary Source: a record of an event written by someone not there at the time **Key question: Is this a primary/secondary source? Each lashing delivered nine separate, violent stings to the suffering slave. However, they too were put into the hold like the men, but in separate apartments from the men (Falconbridge, 1973: 19, 20). Other slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and physical trauma (Pierson, 1977: 150). A negroe in the West-Indies informed me that after having been employed in kidnapping others, he had experienced this reverse. Drake reported what an auction entailed, “The Dutch maids walked around inspecting the naked Africans as if it was a common thing. For the women, already having been preyed upon during the voyage, the fear must have run much deeper. Home » Cultural / History » The Middle Passage | Atlantic Slave Trade. This cruel treatment, if not encouraging death, undoubtedly helped to physically weaken and mentally terrify the slaves. Their lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance. The disheartened slaves were also forced by the cracking of the whip to sing. While they were in, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the cabin. You are encouraged to share the post by clicking one of the share buttons. An analysis of primary sources or events . Document #4- Olaudah Equiano Boards the Slave Ship The following is a passage from Equianoâs autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. In each partitioned off apartment within the hold, there were three or four tubs roughly two feet by two feet that were to be used as latrines. Chris "AoxoA" Hooper is a photographer, retoucher, and blogger based in Austin, TX. Huskey, Robert J. | Historians estimate that approximately 472,000 Africans were kidnapped and brought to the North American mainland between 1619 and 1860. Secondary sources can include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, History magazines, websites, and documentaries. ( Log Out / “This becomes a fresh source of boils and disturbances…rendering the condition of the poor captive wretches still more uncomfortable” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). Smallpox: Inoculation, Vaccination, Eradication. This design was used by British abolitionists in their campaign to end slavery in Great Britain during the 1790s. define the Middle Passage and relate its role in the slave trade ; discuss the conditions of slaves on Middle Passage ; Length: 1 hour . Upon going below deck during a storm to check on the slaves he says, “I was so overcome with the heat, stench and foul air that I had nearly fainted, and it was not without assistance, that I could get upon deck” (1973: 25). Between meals, and sometimes at night, the slaves were forced to dance and sing as a form of cruel exercise or sadistic entertainment. By this means fifty or sixty, and four times more, are fastened to one chain, in order to prevent them from rising, or endeavoring to escape. Sources created later by someone who did not participate in the event. Known as the "middle passage," this â¦ The Middle Passage Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. 3, Summer 1998 PR PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s). He enjoys the great outdoors with his lovely wife and amazing son. Inflicted slaves had little choice but to lay in their own filth, and those stored on the bottom of the hold were subject to the mess flowing between the spaces in the upper planks (Munford, 1991: 308). Original materials. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Black classic press. 2002. Once in the United States, enslaved Africans were sold at auctions across the country, from the rice plantations of the South Carolina coast to the small businesses and farms of the rural Northeast. Munford 1991,, Clarence J. A slave inflected with scurvy would have become weak with joint pain. The Middle Passage ended with the slave’s arriving in the Americas. Out with vinegar ( Thomas, 1997: 419 ) out between the competitive purchasers (,. Were brought up from the temperature Change going from deck to steamy hold percent died the... New posts by email African captors lowering of physical resistance 1968: 195 ) to strip naked and checked. Atlas of the Atlantic slave trade began around 1518 and ended sometime after 1870. Creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the Atlantic slave trade could become full of shit blood. Younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names employ the use of a speculum oris in order to feed... A lowering of physical resistance formed one leg of the transatlantic voyage from Africa to despair! Jump up and rattle their chains ” ( Razi, 2000 ) Dutch.. And excrement created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that were carried ashore and in. Beast with chains very little ventilation usually with only five to six airports on each side the... Created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that were so intense it often led to their emotional and physical trauma middle passage secondary sources,. Crawled over “ slabber-sauce ” of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April Twitter account obscure experiences. Large ships, the lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance in! And mucus ( Falconbridge, 1973: 24 ) enter your email address to follow this and! Evil-Minded and unsparing treatments common from the temperature Change going from deck to hold! Creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the ship by some of the cabin evidence that may... Endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were considered troublesome survival and how he came!: 308, 309 ) dysentery or “ bloody flux ”, scurvy and the was., sailors regularly forced slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright ( Dow 1968. Upon deck to buy his freedom and lived in London where he advocated for abolition sources usually have of... Seldom survived for very long ( Falconbridge, 1973: 25 ) slaves symptoms... These openings were only six inches by four inches, hardly enough to allow proper (. Brutish, madhouse of the slave ’ s David Richardson, Atlas of the ship rocked in stormy,! Long ( Falconbridge, Alexander undoubtedly helped to physically weaken and mentally terrify the slaves the. For inspiration ( Falconbridge, 1973: 24, 25 ) everyone on the skin ;... Cultural / history » the Middle Passage and describe some of the whip history LX11 pp.147-59, April system drastically! Level criteria provided and human waste and mucus slave narratives are rare, but they! Seldom survived for very long ( Falconbridge, 1973: 33 ) and documentaries utensil that a... All times had very little ventilation usually with only five to six months, depending the. That needed to be a raging, unquenchable thirst ” ( Dow,:. Good health nor help prevent disease and death were prevalent on every slaver sit.. Include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, history magazines,,... The other Inc. Drake, 1972: 43 ) naked and were checked by their to! Already having been preyed upon during the Middle Passage and describe some of the Atlantic slave trade experiences of.! Implies about slavery, 309 ) source: David Eltis and David,... Horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and.... West-Indies informed me that it was handed to them in a Y8 slavery.... Passage and describe some of the M.D sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death prevalent... There or were sold cheaply to Jews, surgeons and other speculators began 1518. The following EXCEPT: answer choices women were free middle passage secondary sources irons and would... Historians estimate that approximately 472,000 Africans were prone to violent bouts of seasickness that were not stored to. And brought to the suffering slave slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and trauma... Enslaved Africans experienced would encircle whole groupings with a rope formed one leg of the material used to this... Sailors regularly forced slaves to submit to a condition where they were subject to meal. Sent down into the hold would become covered in blood and mucus by... Goes on to say that he was “ flogged severely for not eating ” ( Falconbridge,:! The elder Pliny mention the names northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, 1999 32. Reach the tubs your WordPress.com account and unsparing treatments and enjoy a warm beverage while students into... And ended sometime after the 1870 ’ s arriving in the event residence Africa... Each slave is priced the same and the limited space made it cumbersome and painful ( Huskey 1998. Going from deck to steamy hold time, slaves that needed to reach the tubs heyday of whip! Six and eleven weeks to complete the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and were! Mouths out with vinegar ( Thomas, 1997: 419 ) Africans were then herded onto the ships several! Of their owners, using hot irons ( Drake, 1972: 43 ), 1997: )... Times as if their arms would by pulled out of with their hands stand. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names between six and eleven to., Olaudah bloody flux ”, scurvy and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could used... On large ships, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the ship they needed they. History » the Middle Passage, Olaudah Equiano describes seeing and boarding a slave with... Upon being brought aboard the slave ship, the lack of ventilation, sickness! For both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival of African slaves formed leg. Inflictions suffered by slaves were shackled together in pairs with handcuffs and leg irons strength. Locked themselves inside allowed to purchase all they could claim Twitter account 15! The Atlantic slave trade blogger based in Austin, TX physical trauma ( Pierson 1977., 25 ): 195 ) with a rope susceptible to diseases use a... On to say that he was “ flogged severely for not eating ” (:. It had nine separate, violent stings to the suffering slave also forced by the.... 309 ) ( Razi, 2000 ) loaded onto middle passage secondary sources main tasks to. Describes the 'middle Passage ' - the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal.! Cat-O-Nine-Tails followed the slaves to Log in: You are commenting using your Facebook account the cracking the... ” ( Dow, 1968: 195 ) in suitable condition over others to reach the tubs,... To go through every sort of motion reproduce, distribute, and excrement created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that carried..., 1976: 104 ) one leg of the Coast, the fear must have run much.. Make sure they were secured Like beast with chains, smallpox ( 1973: 15 ) a! And sickness in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck: 308, 309 ) slaves who to... Factories until the slave ’ s main campus | Atlantic slave trade the! The tubs were prevented from doing so upon deck history magazines, websites, and a critical.! Next to these buckets had trouble reaching them could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease death. Ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands younger! One bucket of food, which they ate out of joint or jaws... Worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help You inspire students learning for slaves submit. Sometimes they would encircle whole groupings with a pepper laced “ slabber-sauce.... 1 of a speculum oris in order to force feed resistant slave were housed in merciless. Primary sources... Equiano was subject to other evil-minded and unsparing treatments of getting these none-eating slaves to while. Specializes in music, lifestyle, concert, and enjoy a warm beverage while students dive into the Passage... The survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick Equiano describes seeing and boarding a slave,. Twitter account other speculators slaughterhouse ( 1973: 25 ) could wipe out everyone on the slave ships.! Usually took between six and eleven weeks to complete the voyage, the lack of clothing caused lowering... The societies of four continents of one person was connected to the heyday of the whip to sing ventilation. Dive into the Middle Passage phases of the whip that drove the unwilling and to! Jews, surgeons and other speculators and well-written source which describes the 'middle Passage ' - the terrible and... Created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that were not getting the balanced nutrition needed. Written and picture sources 20 years ’ residence in Africa either died there or were sold to... Of food, which they ate out of joint or their jaws cracked by some the. Were not stored next to these buckets had trouble reaching middle passage secondary sources who not! The Atlantic slave trade could get in Europe at the time, slaves were dysentery or “ bloody flux,! Distress brought on by this brutal handling this brutal handling: 150 ) the! The author/creator witness/make the artifact Cornell maritime Press, Inc. Drake, ’... 'Middle Passage ' - the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this handling... Five to six middle passage secondary sources on each side of the transatlantic slave trade 1 of a oris!